Thursday, 14 May 2009

Bill Clinton in call for 'strong' climate change bill

By Edward Luce in Washington
Published: May 14 2009 03:00

The US Congress must pass a "strong" climate change bill before the global warming summit in Copenhagen this December if it is to have a chance of persuading China and India to sign up to a new treaty, says Bill Clinton.
"First of all if we don't adopt a workable but a strong [cap and trade] bill then we can't get them to sign up because we won't have any credibility," Mr Clinton told the Financial Times in an interview yesterday.
"They will dodge - they won't play in that arena unless we are clearly there."
The former US president, whose administration negotiated the Kyoto protocol in 1997, which failed to be passed by Congress because it largely spared the big developing countries from obligations, said China was in some respects ahead of the US on clean energy.
"They're already doing a lot of things better than we are," Mr Clinton said. "All of their new coal plants are going to be at higher technology than our own coal stock . . . They have already invested more than we have in high-speed rail. The only thing they are still behind us on is vigorous energy efficiency."
Mr Clinton's comments coincided with the first signs of progress on the cap and trade bill before the House of Representatives. However, some groups have raised concerns that the bill, which is largely the result of compromise between "rustbelt" and "sunrise" state Democrats, may have excessively watered down President Barack Obama's campaign commitments.
Mr Obama pledged to auction off 100 per cent of the permits. Under the emerging bill, which is expected to pass the House later this year but will face a rougher passage in the Senate, more than half of the permits would be given away to utility companies, energy-intensive manufacturers and oil refiners.
Mr Clinton said the bare minimum for the US in Copenhagen would be to have passed a strong cap and trade bill in the House and a clear signal it was about to pass the Senate.
He added that the talks in Copenhagen would not even reach discussions about how China and India could move to more energy-efficient economies unless Congress had reached that point. "We won't get to the core question unless America crosses the threshold first because they kind of got to hide behind our skirts last time [at Kyoto]," he said.
The former president's Clinton Global Initiative is organising an effort to refit buildings in an energy-efficient way in 40 cities around the world - most recently the Empire State building in New York. Mr Clinton said China could re-employ many of its 35m jobless manufacturing workers re-tooling its buildings.
On clean energy, Mr Clinton cited a recent US government report showing that 35 to 50 per cent of US energy needs could be met from wind and air if the transmission systems were put in place. And he pointed to ways to change the American lifestyle that would apply in the developing world.
"Even in Germany, which is the auto capital of Europe, they're now building car-free suburban villages. If the president [Obama] stays on his current course, we may move away from internal combustion engines to electric motors."
Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009

Scientists fear for seas at climate talks

By John Aglionby in Manado
Published: May 14 2009 00:02

Climate change negotiations will not take proper account of the devastating impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the seas, hundreds of scientists attending the World Ocean Conference in Indonesia warned on Wednesday.
At risk: coral is predicted to die out by 2100 if action is not taken promptlyThe meeting aims to influence the crucial United Nations climate change talks scheduled to take place in Copenhagen in December. But the latest draft declaration from the ocean conference, seen by the Financial Times, has deleted the recommendation in an earlier version that the international negotiators “consider the ocean dimension in the post 2012 [climate change] framework”.
“Everyone’s waiting for the new US administration to elaborate its position before they commit to anything,” said one participant.
Water temperatures, sea levels, acidity and coral bleaching are rising so fast that hundreds of millions of people will be at risk within decades unless drastic action is taken promptly, scientists at the first global conference on oceans and climate change concluded.

Cuts in carbon dioxide emissions planned for 2050 should either be made deeper or brought forward, they said. Proposals on the agenda for Copenhagen are for an 80 per cent cut in emissions by 2050 for developed countries and a halving for developing countries.
But politicians attending the conference, which is hoping to issue a declaration on Thursday to influence the Copenhagen negotiations, do not appear to have the same sense of urgency as the scientists. “It means it’s even more urgent for scientists working on oceans to increase their lobbying,” said Meg Caldwell, an ocean specialist at Stanford University in the US.
Ms Caldwell launched a report on Wednesday by the Centre for Ocean Solutions, synthesising the findings of 3,400 studies of the Pacific.
Endorsed by 450 ocean scientists, it concludes: “The rates of current environmental change far outpace anything seen in human history and are likely to accelerate in the near future. Many areas of the Pacific Ocean may become uninhabitable [within decades].”
Rising water acidity caused by climate change is one previously ignored area now of increasing concern.
Nancy Knowlton, a marine science professor in the US, said corals put in water of the acidity expected by 2100 completely lost their skeletons. “Coral reefs will cease to exist as physical structures by 2100 and perhaps 2050,” she said.
Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009

Climate change biggest threat to health, doctors say

Sarah Boseley, health editor, Wednesday 13 May 2009 19.27 BST

Senior doctors today published a report warning that climate change is the biggest threat to global health of the 21st century.
Rising global temperatures would have a catastrophic effect on human health, the doctors said, and patterns of infection would change, with insect-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever spreading more easily.
Heatwaves such as occurred in Europe in 2003, which caused up to 70,000 "excess" deaths, will become more common, as will hurricanes, cyclones and storms, causing flooding and injuries.
"We have not just underestimated but completely neglected and ignored this issue," said Richard Horton, editor of the Lancet, which published the report commissioned from University College London. "This has not been an issue on the agenda of any professional body in health in the last 10 years in any significant way. This report is one of the stepping stones in changing that culture within the health sector. It is the biggest employer in Britain and it should be a leading voice in the debate."
The lead author of the report, Prof Anthony Costello, a paediatrician who works on maternal and newborn health in the developing world, said his own views had changed. "I thought there were other priorities 18 months ago," he said. Now he believed that mitigating the impact of rising temperatures was urgent. "Every year we delay, the costs go up. We are setting up a world for our children and grandchildren that may be extremely turbulent."
The biggest impact could be in food and water shortages, which in the past have led to war and mass migration.
Prof Hugh Montgomery, of UCL's institute for human health and performance, who was one of the report's authors, noted that Mikhael Gorbachev had linked 21 recent conflicts to water instability.
The report says that the poorest people in the world will be worst affected. Although the carbon footprint of the poorest billion people is about 3% of the world's total footprint, loss of life is expected to be 500 times greater in Africa than in the wealthy countries.
Despite improvements in health, 10 million children still die every year, more than 200 million children under five are not developing as well as they should, 800 million people are hungry, and 1,500 million people do not have clean drinking water. All those things could worsen very significantly, the report says.
The impact of heatwaves, flooding and global food shortages will be felt in Britain too, the authors warned. "This is an immediate danger. It is going to affect you and it will certainly affect your children. While there is the injustice that the poorest will be worst affected, you will be affected too," said Montgomery.
The report says evidence on greenhouse gas emissions, temperature and sea-level rises, the melting of ice-sheets, ocean acidification and extreme climatic events suggests the forecasts by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007 might be too conservative. The UK target, to limit global warming to two degrees more, is unlikely to be achieved.
Costello, however, said the message from the report was not entirely negative. "There is an awful lot we can do," he said. Reducing carbon emissions would encourage people to cut use of vehicles, and if that led to more walking and cycling it would tend to lower stress levels, reduce obesity, and lessen heart disease, lung disease and stroke risks.

Green energy could create 16,000 jobs

Published Date: 14 May 2009

THE number of jobs in renewables in Scotland could increase more than fivefold in the next decade.
A Scottish Government report reveals there are already 3,000 jobs in renewables north of the Border, and that the sector has the potential to support at least 16,000 more in ten years. It is also estimated in Economic Benefits of Energy that about 10,000 jobs will come from the development of clean fossil fuels and carbon capture and storage. Jim Mather, the energy minister, said the jobs in energy will help with Scotland's economic recovery. "The Scottish Government is determined to respond positively to the global downturn by creating the conditions for a strong recovery," he said."The energy sector in Scotland is uniquely placed to lead that recovery."

Carbon cost of nuclear power

The Guardian, Thursday 14 May 2009

Your account of the part buyout of British Energy assets (Centrica to buy 20% stake ion British Energy from EDF," 11 May) asserts that nuclear power is "carbon free". It is not, and this sloppy statement demonstrates the democratic dangers of the nuclear industry repeating this falsehood to gain support for its planned UK expansion, as unquestioning journalists repeat it as if it is fact.
Greenhouse gas emissions are produced from uranium mining, milling, enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication, all prior to fuel irradiation, and spent fuel management, radioactive waste storage and/or disposal, post irradiation, and ultimately reactor decommissioning.
In 1999 the Department of Trade & Industry published a study that calculated that for each kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity generated, nuclear produces 4g of CO2, while wind produces 8g, and hydro-power 8-9g.
Additionally, nowhere in the 3,352-word statement issued by Centrica to explain its intended purchase of a 20% share in British Energy (BE) does it explain whether this shareholding will include the gas company taking a pro-rata 20% share in BE's plutonium stockpile, of at least 15,000kg.
In a written parliamentary answer on 30 October last year to independent MP Dai Davies, energy minister Mike O'Brien revealed: "British Energy owns a relatively small quantity of plutonium that has arisen from reprocessing ... British Energy treats the plutonium as a zero-value asset, and records a liability of £4.8m (discounted) in its accounts relating to the management of the plutonium."
Do Centrica share holders know this?Dr David LowryContributing author, Nuclear or Not?

Green stock exchange would help protect countryside, says CLA

Trading schemes could set minimum quotas for the environmental benefits landowners must deliver

Press Association, Wednesday 13 May 2009 13.46 BST

Farmers and landowners should be able to earn "credits" for environmental measures that could be traded under schemes to boost funding to protect the countryside, it was urged today.
The Country Land and Business Association (CLA) outlined proposals for a "green stock exchange" to ensure natural services, such as unpolluted water and wildlife, are maintained.
The association said such schemes had worked in other countries, including floor-and-trade schemes that set minimum quotas for the environmental benefits landowners had to deliver. If landowners surpassed the quotas they could sell on their excess credits to others who had failed to meet the standards.
In other schemes offsetting is used, so that businesses contributing to the loss or degradation of habitat, such as wetlands, through development would have to pay for improvements to similar land elsewhere.
On a large scale, there is the possibility of bio-banking, in which a landowner manages a large parcel of land to preserve and enhance its natural value and can then sell offsets to developers who have to meet legal obligations on protecting habitats. James Lovelock, the environmentalist who developed the Gaia theory – the planet as a "living organism" – has previously condemned putting a price on ecosystems and land, likening such an approach to slavery.
The CLA's president, Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, said it was not possible to go on increasing food production and, in parallel, damaging the environment. While indirect markets for environmental services, such as certification schemes, management of moorland for hunting or eco-tourism already exist, he said the CLA was proposing a "revolutionary" way of using private markets to protect the natural world.
"At the moment the British public are perfectly prepared to pay for food and transport and most things delivered through markets, but they don't wish to pay through any market for the environment and management of the landscape, which they see as a by-product of farming and land management," he said.
He added the only way to support the environment was currently through taxes, directly through government schemes or through the EU's Common Agricultural Policy, which pays farmers to manage the land.
But the current economic climate and with a reform of CAP looming in 2012, those sources of funding could be in doubt, he warned.
Dr Derrick Wilkinson, author of a report laying out the proposals for how environmental protection could be paid for by the private sector, said it could work in the UK. "In Australia, bio-banking has been shown to work to address the loss of biodiversity, and in the US there are no fewer than 122 mitigation banks and a market worth a billion dollars," he said.
"Creating these environmental markets would be a triple victory – a win for the environment, a win for rural business and also a win for environmental regulators who would find themselves working with fewer, but more professional environmental producers."
The CLA has held a seminar to put forward the proposals, and wants to see further debate on which mechanisms could work in the UK.

A High-Tech Twist on the Filling Station

In Japan, a California Start-Up Unveils System for Quickly Swapping Batteries in Electric Cars

YOKOHAMA, Japan -- Electric-car promoter Better Place Inc. gave its first public demonstration of a battery-swapping system, a key achievement for the start-up company as it tries to persuade auto makers and investors that it is possible to wean drivers from gas-powered cars.
But relatively low gas prices, a credit crunch and turmoil in the auto industry continue to create obstacles for Better Place's plans, especially as it seeks auto makers to manufacture electric vehicles.
Addressing widespread concerns about the limited range of electric vehicles, Better Place founder and Chief Executive Shai Agassi on Wednesday showed how a driver could exchange a depleted battery for a fresh one in less time than it takes to fill up with a tank of gas. Start to finish, the automated system can complete a battery switch in about one minute.
Mr. Agassi called the debut of the system in Yokohama a "major validation" of his company's business plan for the electric vehicle.
Better Place, based in Palo Alto, Calif., plans to support electric vehicles with a global network of thousands of battery-swapping stations, like the one unveiled Wednesday, as well as thousands more recharging points. It aims to roll out its electric cars in Israel and Denmark in 2011 using networks, paid for by private equity, costing about $150 million each. Better Place plans to function like the mobile-phone industry, with drivers subscribing to plans that bill them for the miles they drive each month, just as mobile-phone users are charged for minutes.

But it isn't clear who will build all the electric vehicles Better Place needs for its business. The alliance of Renault SA and Nissan Motor Co. has agreed to manufacture an electric vehicle -- with a swappable battery -- for Better Place's operations in Israel and Denmark. But Renault-Nissan has no plans to supply electric cars for networks Better Place is building in Australia, San Francisco and Hawaii.
Mr. Agassi said most global auto companies aren't interested in building electric vehicles now because they can't afford to take the risk. "There are no car companies in the market today that are making a profit right now. That's the sad state of the industry," he said.
While some auto makers, like General Motors Corp., plan to come out with limited numbers of electric vehicles, there is still debate within the industry about the future of electric vehicles.
Carlos Ghosn, who heads the Renault-Nissan alliance, said in an interview that while he values his partnership with Better Place, Renault-Nissan won't "blindly put all of its eggs in one basket" by building cars exclusively for Mr. Agassi's start-up. Nissan next year will launch its own electric vehicle, which won't be compatible with Better Place's battery-swap system. The Japanese auto maker instead will rely on building a network of high-voltage, quick-recharging stations to support its electric vehicles.
"At the end of the day those who have the battery and the car are going to be leading the game," Mr. Ghosn said.
Mr. Agassi says that once auto makers see his business success in Israel and Denmark, they will be eager to build more electric vehicles.
He also is hoping that as governments world-wide bail out auto makers, political leaders will push the industry to shift from gas-powered vehicles to produce electric cars that would support Better Place's vision.
Write to John Murphy at

Fresh thinking of latest hybrid car

An air-powered car? Sounds almost too good to be true - so a sceptical Alex Benady took one for a test drive
The Guardian, Thursday 14 May 2009

The three-wheeled Airpod city car. Photograph: Jean Pierre Amet/BelOmbra/Corbis
How would you react to someone who tried to sell you a car that runs on fresh air? Perhaps you would think he was peddling a potentially planet-saving technology. More likely you would dismiss him as a conman or a fantasist. Yet that is precisely the pitch being made by French auto engineer Guy Negre, a good-humoured man in his mid-60s who claims to have developed a car powered by compressed air: one that produces a fraction of the carbon emissions of a standard engine, reaches speeds of 30mph-plus, that can travel 65 miles on a one-minute recharge and, best of all, costs from just over £3,000.
Negre is quick to point out the drawbacks of existing eco-car technology. "Hybrids are only marginally less polluting than the most efficient combustion engines," he says. "Hydrogen power is expensive and impractical. Fuel cells are expensive and unproven and electric cars are reliant on expensive, unreliable battery technology."
Given the number of false green-auto dawns, you might wonder why air-powered cars should be any different. While Negre's air cars have similar carbon emissions to electric cars (it all depends how the electricity to power the pumps that fill their air tanks is generated), he argues that air-power is a superior technology. "Compared to electric cars, air-powered cars cost a fraction of the price to buy, they don't need expensive batteries to be replaced every five years or so and crucially they take only a fraction of the time to recharge."
Negre previously designed racing engines for Renault and has devoted the last 13 years to developing compressed air technology at his factory in Carros, outside Nice, in southern France. He believes air power has a real chance of putting a rocket up the $2tn-a-year global auto industry, radically improving the quality of urban life and making a serious dent in global carbon emissions in the process.
I confess I was so sceptical that I reserved judgment until I had driven one of his cars. On the day I visited the factory, most of the cars were at Schipol airport in Amsterdam, where from next month they are being trialled as replacements for the huge fleet of electric service vehicles operated by Air France KLM. So the version I drove was an early prototype, a three-wheeler with no bodywork, steered by a joystick.
OK, it didn't deliver the smoothly upholstered power so beloved by conventional car enthusiasts. And it possessed all the glamour of a souped-up lawnmower. But it worked, easily reaching speeds above 25mph in the limited space of the factory car park, which doubles as a test track.
In full-scale production, air-powered vehicles will range from three-wheeled buggies to a four-wheeled, five-door family saloon. Although the number of models on offer now is limited for cost reasons, they could eventually include vans, buses, taxis and boats.
The cars are made of fibreglass, which is lighter and 10 times stronger than steel, claims Negre. The compressed air is stored at high pressure in shatter-proof thermoplastic tanks surrounded by a carbon-fibre shell. (The same tanks used to contain the fuel in gas-powered buses.) The air is released through pistons in the engine, which drive the wheels. Unlike conventional internal combustion engines, air-powered engines run very cold and thick ice quickly forms on the engine. This means that the only feature that comes for free in the air car will be air-conditioning.
Each car has an onboard pump that can refill the tank overnight. But Negre has also developed a high-pressure air pump - imagine a heavy-duty version of the tyre pumps found on a garage forecourt - that can fill the tanks in less than a minute. These could be powered by clean electricity - hydro, wind or solar - making the air car completely pollution-free. Even if carbon-generated electricity is used, CO2 emissions are still only 10% of a petrol engine's, claims Negre.
That's great for urban driving where journeys are typically a few miles. For longer journeys there's a hybrid, battery-assisted version, which Negre claims can reach 100mph and travel 900 miles on one gallon of petrol.
Clearly the idea is being taken seriously by KLM. Independent energy experts are also cautiously optimistic. "I've looked at this technology and it can work," says Ulf Bossel, a sustainable energy consultant and organiser of the European Fuel Cell Forum. "It looks good over 50km or so. I see no reason why this shouldn't be a successful form of urban transport in the near future."
But perhaps the most credible endorsement of air power comes from a £30m deal the makers recently signed with Indian car giant Tata to license the technology in Asia for use in the ultra-cheap Nano. Negre has also signed deals to manufacture the car in the US, Latin America, and several European countries, but none as yet in the UK. However, he says he is close to sealing an agreement that could see air cars on sale in the UK within three years. But if cars running on fresh air fulfil their promise, why stop there? With just a few alterations, Negre claims a hybrid version of his new engine could even be used to power aircraft.

World's fastest electric cycle to go on sale in Britain

The world's fastest electric bicycle, the A2B - capable of doing speeds of up to 20mph - is set to go on sale in Britain.

Last Updated: 12:59PM BST 13 May 2009

The new A2B electric bike was developed and patented by Ultra Motor Photo: PRNEWSWIRE
The pedal bike with an electric motor has a "rocket boost" button and riders do not require a licence.
It comes in two versions - the A2B Metro and the A2B Hybrid - but cost almost £2,000

Batteries run for up to 20 miles and are charged using a mains plug.
Riders are not required to pay road tax or insurance. In London, owners of the electric bikes are exempt from paying the congestion charge.
Ultra Motor spokesman Julie Farrington said: "It is a product people are really excited by because of its quality.
"In the past, electric bikes have been prototypes because the technology has not really been there.
"But now the technology has progressed enough to mean it is a more viable option."
The company's website says the light-weight product is a pedal-assisted electric bike which has a motor that "kicks in" to complement the rider's energy.
"The A2B Metro is a power-on-demand electric bike, a system that gives you the choice - pedal power or power on demand acceleration," it states.
"Ideal for short trips or commuting, guarantees you arrive fresh on destination."
A Department for Transport spokesman said : "An electric motor on a bicycle must not be able to propel the machine when it is travelling at more than 15mph.
"If it does not comply to this restriction it will need to be registered, insured and is subject to Vehicle Excise Duty and so must display a tax disc.
"The rider will need an appropriate driving licence and will have to wear an approved motorcycle safety helmet."
Twenty-one million electric bikes were sold in China last year, while in Germany power-assisted bicycles are the biggest single category of bikes sold.

Conoco Suspends Collaboration With Tyson to Make Diesel Fuel


ConocoPhillips said Wednesday it has halted its collaboration with Tyson Foods Inc. to make diesel fuel from animal fat.
The company said it idled the project in the fall after federal tax credits that helped fund the project were cut in half. Tyson supplied ConocoPhillips with animal fat from its meat processing operations, which the energy company processed into biofuel at its Borger, Texas, refinery.
Speaking to reporters after the ConocoPhillips's shareholder meeting in Houston, Chief Operating Officer John Carrig said production could resume if government incentives are reinstated.
The announcement reinforces the notion that major oil companies—which have been trying to boost their profiles as producers of cleaner fuels—won't hesitate to reduce their biofuels initiatives if projects become less profitable amid the economic downturn and changing legislation.
ConocoPhillips and Tyson Foods announced a strategic alliance in 2007 to produce transportation fuels from animal fat. ConocoPhillips said the Borger refinery, which can process up to 146,000 barrels a day of crude oil and is located near a Tyson Foods processing plant in Amarillo, was producing about 1,000 barrels a day of renewable diesel.
The tax credit for renewable diesel "co-processing" that helped fund the project was cut from $1 a gallon to 50 cents a gallon as part of the credit market bailout bill approved by Congress and signed by President Bush in late 2008.
While alternative fuels have been the beneficiary of numerous federal government support in recent months, this tax credit fell victim to a coalition of soap-industry lobbyists and lawmakers opposed to tax breaks for large oil companies. Soap and detergent makers were worried that the tax credit would drive up the price for animal fats, which they use in their manufacturing process. In a letter sent last September, a group of senators opposed the credit as an "extravagant" subsidy for big oil.
As a result of the cut to the tax credit, "the project was no longer economically feasible and was put on hold last fall," said Tyson spokesman Gary Mickelson. "Tyson and ConocoPhillips continue to discuss ways to resume the project. However, until the full tax credit is reinstated, production will likely remain suspended."
Tyson is still going forward with the construction of a biofuels plant near Baton Rouge, La., that is expected to start up in early 2010 and will have a capacity of 75 million gallons a year. The project is a joint venture with Syntroleum Corporation, but since it does not involve "co-processing," it still qualifies for the $1-a-gallon tax credit, Mr. Mickelson said.
Susan Daker contributed to this article.
Write to Isabel Ordonez at

Sun sets on BP’s solar hopes

By Ed Crooks, Energy Editor
Published: May 13 2009 20:29

Solar power will not be able to compete with conventional energy until there is a breakthrough in the technology, BP’s chief executive has said, in a further sign of the company’s move away from renewables towards oil and gas.
BP has invested hundreds of millions of dollars in making solar cells and components, but in the past six months it has been closing factories around the world, and announced a sharp cut in its investment in alternative energies, such as solar, from $1.4bn last year to $1bn (£658m) this year.

Tony Hayward, chief executive, on Wednesday told a conference in California: “I think solar is probably the most challenged of all of BP’s alternative energy interests.”
He added: “It is not going to make the transition to be competitive with more conventional power, the gap is too big.”
For solar power to make a breakthrough, there had to be a step-change in technology, he said.
BP has been strongly criticised by environmental campaigners for what they see as its attempt at “greenwash”: exaggerating its environmental credentials.
The “beyond petroleum” slogan adopted by Lord Browne, Mr Hayward’s predecessor, has been retained, but redefined to make clear that “it doesn’t mean we’re abandoning oil and gas, getting out of hydrocarbons, or focusing only on alternative energy”.
As recently as last year, BP estimated that its solar business was worth up to $3.9bn and said it planned to double its investment in the business in 2008 from $150m in 2007.
It set a target for sales of about 800 megawatts of capacity in 2010, up from about 160MW last year.
Since then, however, it has shut factories in Sydney and Madrid and cut production in Maryland. Manufacturing is being transferred to sub-contractors in China, giving BP the capacity to produce about double last year’s output, if it can find customers, but it no longer sets a target for solar sales.
Many other solar companies have been similarly cutting production and reining in their ambitions.
Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009

Novera Energy is Under the Weather

Not everyone appreciates calm, dry sunny weather – shareholders in Novera Energy, the renewable power investor, among them. In the past four months, the company said, reduced rainfall had left its reservoirs lower, cutting power generated by hydro-electric stations, and lower wind speeds had hit output from its wind farms. Shares in Novera fell 1½p to 43¼p.